A variety of videos of veterinary laparoscopy and minimally invasive surgery in a range of different species

Also see the Species section for videos and photographs of different techniques in the different taxonomic groups

  Thoracoscopic division of a vascular ring anomaly, persistent right aortic arch (PRAA) in a puppy, using 3mm instruments (R Pizzi) [view video]
  Thoracoscopic sub-total pericardiectomy in a Rhodesian ridgeback dog with chronic idiopathic pericardial effusion (M Martin & R Pizzi) [view video]
  Canine laparoscopic ovariectomy using an open sub-umbilical approach and 2 port technique (R Pizzi) [view video]
Laparoscopic guided renal biopsy using a percutaneous trucut needle (R Pizzi) [view video]
  Laparoscopic ovariectomy in an obese captive sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) using 3 ports (R Pizzi, A Tjolle, Y Feltrer) [view video]
  Laparoscopic correction (derotation) of a gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) in a German shepard dog, followed by prophylaxtic gastropexy (R Pizzi) [view video]
  Diagnostic laparoscopy and mutiple organ biopsy, including laparoscopic assisted full thickness intestinal biopsy in a bush dog (Speothus venaticus) with chronic diarrhoea and abdominal pain (R Pizzi & Y Martinez Pereira) [view video]
   Laparoscopic removal of an ovarian remnant in a pet ferret (R Pizzi) [view video]
   Endoscopic ovariectomy in an adult green iguana (Iguana iguana) with 3mm instruments (R Pizzi) [view video]
   Liver biopsy in a young cat with severe chronic-active hepatitis and fibrosis (R Pizzi) [view video]
   Canine laparoscopic ovariectomy using 3 ports (R Pizzi) [view video]
   Exploratory laparoscopy in a skunk (Mephistis mephistis) with severe perineal trauma (R Pizzi & D Brown) [view video]
   Laparoscopic artificial insemination in a Jaguar (Panthera onca) (R Pizzi - RZSS) [view video]
   Laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy in a Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in a zoological collection (R Pizzi, A Tjolle, S Girling, A Bell, D Brown - RZSS) [view video]
   Thoracoscopic examination of a puppy with idiopathic megaoesophagus (R Pizzi) [view video]
   Surgical endoscopic examination of the lung in a carpet python (Morelia spilota) snake with chronic respiratory disease (R Pizzi) [view video]
   Laparoscopic vasectomy in a yellow-breasted capuchin (Cebus xanthosternos) (R Pizzi - RZSS) [view video]
   Laparoscopic examination of a uterine adenoscrcinoma in a pet rabbit (R Pizzi) [view video]
   Exploratory laparoscopy in a wild grey seal pup (Halichoerus grypus) in a wildlife rehabilitation centre (R Pizzi) [view video]
   Endoscopy (coelioscopy) in rescued battery chicken with salpingitis, coelomitis, and ascities (R Pizzi) [view video]
   Use of a cutting optical port (Visiport) for laparoscopic access in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) (R Pizzi, J Cracknell, L Dalrymple) [view video]
   Gastroscopy with a rigid endoscope to remove a gastric foreign body in bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) (R Pizzi) [view video]

 Non-invasive examination of the organs in the coelomic cavity of a Testudo species tortoise through the thin walled bladder during cystoscopy.(R Pizzi) [view video]

 Cystoscopy demonstrating eggs in the bladder of a Testudo species tortoise with egg binding (dystocia) (R Pizzi) [view video]

 

 Contributor Videos

   History of veterinary laparoscopy (P Coronel Reyes) [view video]
 Canine Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (Jan Doedens) [view video]
Laparoscopic assisted cystoscopy for the removal of uroliths in a male dog (A Chernov) [view video]
   Laparoscopic assisted prophylactic gastropexy in a dog (V Garbagnoli) [view video]
   Laparoscopic nephrectomy in a dog (P Coronel Reyes) [view video]
Two-step laparoscopic abomasopexy in cattle with left abomasal displacement (Prof Doga Temizsoylu) [view video]
   Placement of laparoscopic trocars for nephrectomy in a dog (P Coronel Reyes) [view video]
   Laparoscopic view of a traumatc diaphragmatic rupture in a dog (P Coronel Reyes) [view video]
   Open laparoscopic approach in a dog [view video]
   Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in a dog (P Coronel Reyes) [view video]
   Canine thoracoscopy with anatomical annotations (P Coronel Reyes) [view video]
   Diagnostic laparoscopy in a pig (P Coronel Reyes) [view video]
   Optical trocar access in a pig (P Coronel Reyes) [view video]
   Laparoscopic liver wedge biopsy in a pig (P Coronel Reyes) [view video]

 

 Videos from other websites

We include a number of mainly human surgery videos here from other sites, as we believe they demonstrate valuable information to veterinary surgeons.  

   Severe intraoperative haemorrhage and laparoscopic control without conversion to open surgery [view video]
An excellent tutorial video on the principles and safe use of electrosurgery in laparoscopic surgery [view video]
   Human thoracoscopic assisted vascular ring anomaly resection [view video]
   Infrared thermal views of the ultrasonic scalpel and ligasure [view video]
   Demonstration of a laparoscopic surgery robot performing micro-origami [view video]

 

Thoracoscopic division of a vascular ring anomaly (PRAA) in a puppy with 3mm instruments. This video demonstrates the thoracoscopic correction of a vascular ring anomaly (due to a persistent right aortic arch, or PRAA) causing a megaoesophagus, in a young puppy, using 3mm human paediatric instruments (Romain Pizzi). The same minimally invasive techniques as are gold standard in human paediatric surgery, can equally be applied in veterinary patients. No chest drain was needed, and the patient made an uneventful recovery returning home the next day. The procedure is not only less invasive for the patient, resulting in much less post-operative pain, and minimal post-operative hospital care, but can work out less expensive for the owners than traditional open chest surgery followed by prolonged post-operative hospitalisation. This video can also be contrasted with the human paediatric surgical video of the same condition performed semi-open (thoracoscopic assisted) further down this page. [Return to top of page]

Canine thoracoscopic sub-total pericardiectomy. A case of recurrent idiopathic pericardial effusion in a 6 year old Rhodesian ridgeback female was treated by a thoracoscopic subtotal pericardiectomy, performed via soft 5mm ports (M Martin & R Pizzi). [Return to top of page]

Canine laparoscopic ovariectomy is one of the most common laparoscopic procedures currently performed in dogs. The 2 port technique and use of bipolar electrocautery illustrated here is one of the most popular (the others being 3 ports, and a single port technique using an operating laparoscope). In this video primary port placement is by an open approach rather than verres needle and blind sharp trocar insertion, in keeping with current trends in human laparoscopic access (Romain Pizzi). [Return to top of page]

Laparoscopic guided renal biopsy. This video demonstrates a laparoscopic guided percutaneous trucut needle biopsy of the cranial renal cortex in a dog. This dog was asymptomatic, but demonstrated a mild azotaemia on pre-anaesthetic biochemistry tests, with isothenurea, negative urine cultures, and unremarkable abdominal radiography. Abdominal ultrasonography was largely unremarklable aside from mild renal pelvis dilatation. Histology revealed chronic interstitial fibrosis, suspected related to a chronic low grade pyelonephritis. (Romain Pizzi). [Return to top of page]

Laparoscopic ovariectomy in an obese captive sloth bear

(Melursus ursinus) (R Pizzi, Zoological Society of London) [Return to top of page]

   

Laparoscopic correction of a canine gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV), followed by a gastropexy to prevent recurrence, in an 11 year old female neutered German Shepherd Dog (GSD). The dog recovered unremarkably, and remains clinically healthy more than a year after surgery (R Pizzi, Inglis Vet Centre). [Return to top of page] 

Diagnostic laparoscopic surgery in a bush dog (Speothos venaticus) at Edinburgh Zoo (R Pizzi, Royal Zoological Society of Scotland). [Return to top of page] 

Laparoscopic removal of an ovarian remnant in a Ferret. A neutered female 3 year old ferret presented with severe bilateral alopecia and weight loss. Ultrasonography demonstrated a cystic mass caudal to the left kidney. This ovarian remnant (confirmed via histology) was removed via laparoscopy with a 3mm 30degree laparoscope and 3mm instruments (R Pizzi). [Return to top of page] 
 
 
Iguana endoscopic ovariectomy. An endoscopic surgery neutering of a female iguana. Also referred to as minimally invasive or keyhole surgery, endosurgery results in small wounds, a faster recovery, and less post-operative pain in veterinary patients, just as in humans (R Pizzi). [Return to top of page]
 
 
Laparoscopic liver biopsy in a cat. This laparoscopy demonstrates a 2 year old cat with a chronic active hepatitis. Note the already severe hepatic fibrosis, and large reactive spleen. Laparoscopic biopsy demonstrated a chronic active hepatitis with a bacterial component. While this cat responded well to 6 weeks of very broad spectrum antibiosis, the fibrosis remains, and highlights the benifit of early diagnostics, such as laparoscopic biopsy, and treatment, to prevent irreversible hepatic fibrosis (R Pizzi). [Return to top of page]
 

Canine laparoscopic ovariectomy is one of the most common laparoscopic procedures currently performed in dogs. While a 2 port technique is currently the most popular, an alternative, older 3 port technique is illustrated here (a single port technique using an operating laparoscope is also used by some vets). The 3 ports in this case were all placed in the midline (linea alba). This allows the surgeon to complete each ovary on a different side, and tilting the patient helps retract overlying viscera and expose the ovary (Romain Pizzi). [Return to top of page] 

Exploratory Laparoscopy in a striped skunk (Mephistis mephistis) (R Pizzi, Royal Zoological Society of Scotland) - An adult female striped skunk (Mephistis mephistis) was attacked by a fox that broke into her enclosure. She sustained a severe, deep wound below her tail and just above her anus. While the rectum and vagina were not injured, the wound was found to be more than 12cm deep on probing. The possibility of abdominal penetration could not be eliminated by radiography and ultrasonography. An brief exploratory laparoscopy was performed to examine for any signs of peritonitis. a 5mm laparoscope was used, with a sub-umbilical cannula placed via an open approach. The abdomen was found to be unremarkable except for a small number of small incidental biliary cysts in the liver. Surgery time was 8 minutes, and the skunks wounds healed well with medical management. [Return to top of page] 

Jaguar laparoscopic artificial insemination. This video demonstrates the technique of laparoscopic artificial insemination in a Jaguar. This female was a confiscated circus animal, that had had her canines and front claws removed, and was inprinted on humans. Attempts to get her to breed naturally with male jaguars had been unsuccesful, and she had to be separated to prevent her being seriously injured or killed. While artificial insemination is not the ideal for breeding of endangered species, in select cases such as this, it has the potential to allow a genetically valuable individual to reproduce. (R. Pizzi, The Royal Zoological Society of Scotland). [Return to top of page] 

Laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy in a Reindeer at Edinburgh Zoo, (R Pizzi,  Royal Zoological Society of Scotland. [Return to top of page] 
   

Canine thoracoscopic examination of idiopathic megaoesophagus. This video demonstartes the thoracoscopic anatomy of an idiopathic megaoesophagus in a 7 week old German Shepard puppy. Contrast this with our video of a thoracoscopic correction of a PRAA causing a restrictive megaoesophagus (R Pizzi). [Return to top of page] 

Carpet Python surgical lung endoscopy. This video shows a surgical lung endoscopic examination in a 2kg Carpet Python (Morelia spilota) that was suffering from chronic lower respiratory tract disease. The long narrow trachea makes the use of a standard flexible bronchoscope difficult in snakes. In this technique a long rigid endoscope is surgically inserted in the air sac region of the caudal lung. Snakes have a faveolar lung structure, unlike the mammalian alveolar lung, with most of the spongy faveolar structure surrounding the lumen of the cranial lung, gradual reducing caudally to a thin membranous air sac. Some organs can be seen through the thin air sac walls. In this examination no fungal plaques, parasites, or granulomas were evident, just small beads of mucopurulent material that were samples for bacterial culture and sensitivity (R Pizzi, Zoological Medicine Ltd). [Return to top of page] 

Capuchin Laparoscopic Vasectomy. This video demonstrates a laparoscopic vasectomy in a juvenile Yellow-breasted Capuchin (Cebus xanthosternos) weighing 1.1kg, using a 3mm paediatric instruments. This animal was a brother-sister progeny, but was need as a companion for another individual. Traditional vasectomies in primates are prone to wound interference, dehiscence and delayed healing, and may need individuals to be seperated from the group, interupting the normal social structure. This minimally invasive abdominal technique (in this case despite the very small size of the individual, only taking less than 12 minutes operating time), has the benifit of allowing reintroduction to the group only a couple of hours after surgery, no need for excercise restriction or separation from the group, smaller wounds (3mm) and no wound interference. This individual was back in the social group and interacting normally within 2 hours (Romain Pizzi, Royal Zoological Society of Scotland). [Return to top of page] 

Rabbit uterine adenocarcinoma & Metastasis. This short laparoscopy video of an asymptomatic 4 & 1/2 year rabbit with an abdominal mass detected on palpation during a routine helth check, demonstrates a massive uterine adenocarcinoma and metastasis to the liver, diaphragm and peritoneum, with associated ascites. This was not amenable to surgical removal. While laparoscopy provided a relatively non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic tool (this rabbit was treated palliatively at home until later deterioration when it was euthanased), it highlights the clear benifit of early ovariohysterectomy in pet female rabbit, which have a high incidence of this disease (Romain Pizzi, Inglis Vet Centre).  [Return to top of page]

An exploratory laparoscopy in a grey seal pup was performed and liver and mesenteric lymphnode biopsies taken (R Pizzi, SSPCA), as part of investigations during an outbreak of disease in a group of seals in a well maintained rehabilitation centre in Scotland. Due to the thick blubber layer, even in this young seal, access was with a verres needle used for insufflation, and blind placement of a primary 5mm cannula with a guarded cutting trocar. An open approach would have been difficult. This approach had previously been validated in more than 10 seals at post-mortem, which were also used for familiarisation with normal abdominal anatomy before this laparoscopy. [Return to top of page] 

Endoscopy of a chicken with salpingitis. Endoscopic examination of a pet chicken (rescued from a battery hen farm) with ascites and granulomatous salpingitis and coelomitis (R Pizzi). [Return to top of page] 

Visiport optical cutting access port in a Giraffe. This brief video demonstrates the view through a 11mm Covidien "Visiport" during primary access in a giraffe without prior insufflation. This is a visual access port, with a triggered 1mm cutting blade, the tissue planes incised are visualised via the endoscope through the clear distal window. It was originally marketed for use after blind insufflation with a verres needle, but several human studies have demonstrated its safe use for primary access without prior insufflation (Romain Pizzi). [Return to top of page] 

Bearded dragon gastroscopy. A rigid endoscope (optical forceps) was used to retreive a segment of a plastic feeding tube from the stomach of a pet bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), bitten off and swallowed when being fed (R. Pizzi). [Return to top of page] 

Transmural examination of organs during cystoscopy. This video demonstrates a short cystocopy as a non-invasive method of at least partially examining the organs in the coelomic cavity of a Testudo species tortoise visually, through the thin walled bladder.(R Pizzi) [Return to top of page] 

Tortoise cystoscopy for egg binding. Cystoscopy in a Testudo species tortoise with egg binding on radiographs that had failed to respond to the administration of calcium and oxytocin. Cystoscopy demonstrated three of the five eggs were in the bladder. The remaining two eggs were visible in the oviduct/shell gland through the thin bladder wall during the cystoscopy. (R Pizzi) [Return to top of page] 

 

Contributor Videos

This powerpoint slideshow from Paul Coronel Reyes gives an interesting overview of the history of veterinary laparoscopic surgery. [Return to top of page]

   

Canine laparoscopic adrenalectomy (Jan Doedens). The patient was a 9 year old, medium cross breed dog. An abdominal ultrasound in December 2010 revealed a left adrenal mass of approximately 3.49 x 2.23cm. Fine needle aspirates diagnosed Adrenal Hyperplasia. A second scan on the day of the surgery in January 2011 revealed that the mass had grown to approximately 4.3 x 3.2cm. A laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed via three trocars, and the procedure took an hour. Histopathology revealed Adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma. [Return to top of page]

Laparoscopic assisted cystoscopy

(A Chernov). This video demonstrates the use of laparoscopic assisted cystoscopy in a male for the removal of multiple small uroliths. A small endoscope and operating sheath (such a that used for cystoscopy in female dogs) is used in conjunction with a retreival basket, once the bladder apex has been grasp and brought to the trocar site and sutured to the abdominal wall. Alternatively separate forceps can also be used if a larger cystotomy site is created. [Return to top of page] 

Laparoscopic assisted prophylactic gastropexy in a dog (V Garbagnoli). This video also demonstrates how orthodox open abdominal surgery instruments can also occasionally be used for laparoscopic or laparoscopic assisted procedures (in this case allis tissue forceps). [Return to top of page] 

Laparoscopic Nephrectomy in a dog (Paul Coronel Reyes). [Return to top of page] 

Two-step laparoscopic abomasopexy in cattle with left abomasal displacement (Doga Temizsoylu). The technique is a laparoscopy-guided toggle pin fixation of a left displaced abomasum. The first stage of the procedure is performed through the left flank of the standing animal. The entry site for the 10-mm trocar gives access to the laparoscope through the left paralumbar fossa behind the ribs and beneath the transverse processes. The point of entry of the 5-mm trocar that gives access to the long trocar used for the placement of the toggle and for emptying the air from the abomasum is situated in the dorsal third of the 11th intercostal space. A Veress needle is introduced through a cutaneous incision 1 cm in length, and a pneumoperitoneum is induced. The 10-mm trocar is inserted into the abdominal cavity. Next, the 10-mm laparoscope is introduced by the cannula into the abdominal cavity. The abdominal cavity is explored to ensure that there are no abnormalities that could prevent the continuation of the procedure. Next a 5-mm trocar is inserted in the 11th intercostal space under laparoscopic guidance. The long 5-mm trocar is passed through this cannula and into the abdominal cavity, where it is inserted into the greater curvature of the abomasum. The toggle is introduced into this cannula and is pushed into the left displaced abomasum with a blunt-ended trocar. The air is emptied form the abomasum through the trocar. All instruments are then removed, and the incisions are closed in a routine manner.The second stage of the surgery, the animal is placed in dorsal recumbency on the hydrolic operation table. The points of entry for the trocars are infiltrated with lidocaine. The first 10-mm trocar is placed to the right and cranial to the umbilicus. For the second 5-mm trocar is placed 10 cm cranial to the first trocar. Both trocars are inserted into the abdomen. The laparoscope is passed through the first cannula. The two sutures are retrieved with grasping forceps and are pulled through the second portal.

Trocar placement for laparoscopic nephrectomy in a dog (Paul Coronel Reyes). [Return to top of page] 

Diagnostic laparoscopy for a traumatic diaphragmatic rupture in a dog (Paul Coronel Reyes). [Return to top of page]

 

Open laparoscopic approach in dogs (Paul Coronel Reyes). [Return to top of page]

Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in dogs (Paul Coronel Reyes). [Return to top of page] 

Canine thoracoscopy with annotated anatomy (Paul Coronel Reyes) [Return to top of page]

Diagnostic laparoscopy in a pig

. This video demonstrates the normal anatomy of the pigs abdomen as viewed during laparoscopy (Paul Coronel Reyes) [Return to top of page]

Optical trocar access in a pig

This video demonstrates the use of an optical non-cutting trocar (Ethicon) for primary laparoscopic access in a pig (Paul Coronel Reyes). This video can also be compared with that of primary access via an optical cutting trocar (Visiport, Covidien) earlier on this page. [Return to top of page]

Laparoscopic liver wedge biopsy in a pig

. This video demonstrates performing a wedge liver biopsy by means of monopolar electrosurgery, as an alternative to the more common laparoscopic biopsy forceps small punch biopsy, and results in a larger sample for histology (Paul Coronel Reyes) [Return to top of page]

 

Videos from other websites

We include a number of mainly human surgery videos here from other sites, as we believe they demonstrate valuable information to veterinary surgeons.

Severe intra-operative haemorrhage and laparoscopic control

. This video demonstrates a haemorrhage that occured during  right hemicolectomy in anadult human. The patient was fine in the end, but this video gives a useful demonstration that tissue feed-back controlled bipolar surgery uch as the Ligasure (just as other methods such as extra-corporeal ligatures, vascular clips, harmonic scalpel, etc) is not perfect for control of vascular pedicles, and the surgeon should use caution with large vessles and be prepared for all eventualites!

 [Return to top of page]

Safe use of electrosurgery in laparoscopy.

This video reviews the principles and risks of electrosurgery in laparoscopy. It highlights that with understanding and proper application, monopolar electrosurgery can be used safely in laparoscopic surgery procedures. This video should be manditory viewing for any veterinary surgeon undertaking laparoscopic procedures. [Return to top of page]

Human thoracoscopic -assisted vascular ring anomaly division. This human thoracoscopic assisted division of a vascular ring anomaly can be contrasted with the video of the canine total thoracoscopic surgery using 3mm instruments higher up this page. [Return to top of page]

 

Infra-Red comparison of the Harmonic scalpel and Ligasure

. This interesting video gives a comparison of the infra-red heat signatures of an active Ethicon harmonic (ultrasonic) scalpel forceps versus Covidien/Valleylab's Ligasure tissue feed-back bipolar forceps. Both modalities have their fans and critics, and both are slightly better suited to different applications in veterinary endosurgery.

[Return to top of page]

 

Laparoscopy robot demonstration of micro-origami. This video demonstates the very fine dexterity achieble by means of the Da Vinci laparoscopy robot, far more precise than the human hand Unfortunately the robot costs about $1 Million, and so is unlikely to be in veterinary use anytime soon.

 

[Return to top of page]