Because of their unique anatomy, birds were one of the first specis for veterinary keyhole biopsy tecniques to become established, and reptiles due to their very slow healing benifit greatly from less invasive surgery of any kind

Birds, despite their small body size, are ideally suited to endosurgery. Their organs are naturally suspended in the coelomic cavity surrounded by a series of air sacs, and hence do not need insufflation. They are usually the first species zoo veterinary surgeons, or those dealing with exotic pets begin performing endosurgery on. Here a renal biopsy is performed on a Mute swan Cygnus olor (R Pizzi)

In contrast, Reptiles are much less well suited to endosurgery. Having a coelomic cavity, but no air sacs such as birds, means insufflation is needed, but because no diaphragm is present, this collapses lungs and positive pressure ventilation is essential, as well as care in selecting insufflation pressures. That said, reptiles are highly resistant to hypoxia in contrast to mammals and birds, and as wound healing is also much slower than birds and mammals, minimally invasive surgical techniques hold great benifits for the reptile patients welfare. Here a bearded dragon Pogona vitticeps has a liver biopsy performed with short 3mm paediatric instruments (R Pizzi).

Green iguana endoscopic ovariectomy. This video demonstrates the endoscoic ovariectomy (neutering) of an adult female Green iguana (Iguana iguana) using a 3mm laparoscope and 3mm instruments and bipolar radiosurgery (R Pizzi).